Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a new and actively developing area of modern experimental and theoretical biology, which attracts researchers primarily by the possibility of using EVs as diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic agents. Currently, the greatest amount of data has been accumulated on small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) – exosomes, vesicles of endosomal origin, and ectosomes (previously known as microvesicles), which are the product of direct budding from the plasma membrane. In this review, we address the major steps in the biogenesis of exosomes and ectosomes, the major processes of intracellular membrane trafficking, and signaling involving sEVs. The role of the sEVs in the physiology and pathophysiology of the nervous system is also discussed, as well as many promising aspects of the study of sEVs biology.

Full-text link: https://sciencejournals.ru/view-article/?j=neiro&y=2023&v=40&n=4&a=Neiro2304022Turchinets